Sunday, October 27, 2013


Scheme is one of the two main dialects of the programming language Lisp. The other is Common Lisp. Scheme follows a minimalistic approach with a small core. It was developed at the MIT AI Lab by Guy L. Steele and Gerald Jay Sussman via a series of academic memos, known as the Lambda Papers, over the period 1975–1980.

Scheme is a good start point to implement a new programming language, because it is simple (homoiconicity), and it's compactness and elegance.

The Scheme language is standardized in the official IEEE standard.There is a de facto standard called the Revisedn Report on the Algorithmic Language Scheme (RnRS). The most widely implemented standard is R5RS (1998), and a new standard R6RS was ratified in 2007.

There are a lot of implementations, you can see in the this list:

I hope very soon publish its own implementation.

Wednesday, September 25, 2013

Programming paradigm

According to Wikipedia, a programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming, a way of building the structure and elements of computer programs. There are four main paradigms: imperative, functional, object-oriented, and logic programming.

Each paradigm has its own concepts and way of thinking, and we can use it to classify programming language. For example, smalltalk is an object oriented language, or haskell is a pure functional programming language.

Which is the most powerful? It depends on the objective you're pursuing. But if you don't want to wear a straight jacket, a multi-paradigm programming language could be a reasonable choice. 

Let me show you some examples: Common lisp, scheme, erlang, c++, ...

For a longer list :

Sunday, November 11, 2012

Who is Watson (computer)?

Watson is an artificial intelligence computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language,developed in IBM's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci. Watson was named after IBM's first president, Thomas J. Watson.
In 2011, as a test of its abilities, Watson competed on the quiz show Jeopardy!, in the show's only human-versus-machine match-up to date....

For more info ..

Saturday, November 3, 2012

TIOBE Index evolution for Lisp programming language

Some highlights for the Lisp Programming Language (from

  • Highest Rating (since 2001): 1.182% (13th position, November 2011)
  • Lowest Rating (since 2001): 0.319% (15th position, August 2004)
  • Paradigms: Functional
  • Type system: Dynamically typed

Thursday, November 1, 2012

Lisp: 13th position in the TIOBE Programming Community Index

Lisp, the most famous A.I. programming language, is ranked on 13th position in the TIOBE index. The TIOBE Programming Community index is an indicator of the popularity of programming languages. The index is updated once a month.  

This index is based on the number of software enigineers world-wide, courses and third party vendors. The popular search engines Google, Bing, Yahoo!, Wikipedia, Amazon, YouTube and Baidu are used to calculate the ratings.

Below you have the 20 most well ranked for October 2012. 

Oct 2012
Oct 2011
Delta in PositionProgramming LanguageRatings
Oct 2012
Oct 2011
1 2 C 19.822% +2.11%   A
2 1 Java 17.193% -0.72%   A
3 6 Objective-C 9.477% +3.23%   A
4 3 C++ 9.260% +0.19%   A
5 5 C# 6.530% -0.19%   A
6 4 PHP 5.669% -1.15%   A
7 7 (Visual) Basic 5.120% +0.57%   A
8 8 Python 3.895% -0.05%   A
9 9 Perl 2.126% -0.31%   A
10 11 Ruby 1.802% +0.28%   A
11 10 JavaScript 1.261% -0.93%   A
12 12 Delphi/Object Pascal 1.097% -0.01%   A
13 13 Lisp 0.947% -0.08%   A
14 18 Pascal 0.839% +0.12%   A
15 16 Lua 0.728% -0.07%   A
16 20 Ada 0.654% +0.04%   B
17 15 PL/SQL 0.630% -0.27%   B
18 25 Visual Basic .NET 0.599% +0.12%   A--
19 21 MATLAB 0.591% +0.02%   B
20 19 Assembly 0.568% -0.05%   B


Sunday, October 28, 2012

Eliza Chat bot

Do you want to chat with Eliza? Who is Eliza? Well, she: ELIZA, is a computer program and an early example of primitive natural language processing, with the limitations of the first conversational agents. She was written at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum between 1964 and 1966. She is one of the classic chatterbots like:
  Dr. Sbaitso
  Racter or
  Mark V Shaney

Eliza is a conversation simulation. Specifically, she emulates a psychotherapist in the way she asks and answers your statements. For more info go to Eliza . There are many implementations of Eliza, Let me redirect you to one Chat with Eliza #1

Friday, October 26, 2012

Chatbot languages

A chatbot can converse in various language with humans. How many chatbots are in the world and what languages they are using, is a difficult question to answer. But, we can have some information from

We can see in this website a summary by language:

As you can imagine, english is the most used language. However, we can see several chatbots talking some minority languages​​, but no less important as: Catalan, Swedish, or Danish.


Monday, October 22, 2012

Loebner Prize 2012: Play it again, Sam!

The 2012 Loebner Prize took place in Bletchley Park on Tuesday 15th May 2012 to mark Alan Turing's centenary celebrations.

What is the Loebner Prize?

The Loebner Prize for artificial intelligence ( AI ) is the first formal instantiation of a Turing Test. The test is named after Alan Turing the brilliant British mathematician. Among his many accomplishments was basic research in computing science. In 1950, in the article Computing Machinery and Intelligence which appeared in the philosophy journal Mind, Alan Turing asked the question "Can a Machine Think?" He answered in the affirmative, but a central question was: "If a computer could think, how could we tell?" Turing's suggestion was, that if the responses from the computer were indistinguishable from that of a human,the computer could be said to be thinking. This field is generally known as natural language processing.
For more info go to Loebner Prize

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Jabberwacky: an entertaining chatbot

Jabberwacky is an artificial intelligence chat bot that aims to simulate natural human chat in an interesting, entertaining and humorous manner. According to its definition, Jabberwacky is different: It can learn like the way humans learn language, facts, context and rules.

Highlights in Contests:

  • October 2003 – Third place in the Loebner Prize.
  • September 2004 – Second place in the Loebner Prize. First was the computer chat program A.L.I.C.E
  • September 2005 – George (Jabberwacky based) won the Loebner Prize
  • September 2006 – Joan, another Jabberwacky based, wons the Loebner Prize

For more info:

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Who is Elbot?

Elbot is a chatterbot created by Fred Roberts, build with Natural Language Interaction (NLI) technology. He has been registered for different artificial intelligence contests (Prizes, Awards & Competitions) with the following results:

Are you interested in NLI? Go